The Noun in Tseeyo

(Working Copy - Not Final)

 

N.1  Noun Classes

 

Tseeyo is a member of a group of languages partially characterized by the use of a noun class concord system.  Every Tseeyo noun belongs to at least one, and usually two noun classes and can be analyzed to consist of a noun stem with a prefix indicating the class of the head noun.  

 

Example N.1.1

 

                   O class                            ó+cuku                  ócuku           “pig”

                   A class                             á+cuku                  ácuku           “pigs”

 

                   KA class       (high-tone nasal)+bɔɛ́                ḿbɔɛ́           “knife”

                   TSI class                           ʦí+bɔɛ́                  ʦíbɔɛ́           “knives”

 

                   MA class                          má+nde                mánde         “water”

 

In Example N.1.1 above, the Tseeyo word for pig is demonstrated to belong to two noun classes, the O singular class and the A plural class.  These same classes are used for nouns signifying almost all animates including people.  In the singular O class, the high-toned prefix ‘ó’ precedes the controlling noun. In the plural A class, the high-toned prefix ‘á’ precedes the controlling noun. 

 

We also see that the Tseeyo word for knife belongs to the singular ‘KA’ class and the plural ‘TSI’ class and that the noun stems add the appropriate prefixes for those classes.  Likewise, the Tseeyo word for water is shown to belong to the collective (mass) class MA.  The appropriate prefix is therefore appended to the noun stem.

 

In Tseeyo the head noun of a phrase is always marked by a noun class prefix that indicates, among other things, whether a noun is singular, plural or collective.  Head nouns control the noun class concord of all modifiers that participate in the noun phrase.  Modifiers acting in an adjectival role show concord by affixing the appropriate concord suffix for the same noun class as the head noun. It is possible to think of noun class concord markers as a set of parenthetical particles enclosing the members of a noun phrase. 

 

Pronouns, demonstratives and other anaphora also appear in forms which are in concord with the head noun.  In the sentences below we see examples of distal demonstratives (that, those) as well as an anaphoric binder that acts to ‘bind up’ the dependant noun phrase and refer back to the head noun.  We find it convenient to refer to concord suffixes and concordant anaphora forms together as ‘concord elements’.  If we compare the following sentences, it is easy to spot the instances where the noun class concord system is operative.

 

Example N.1.2

 

O class         ócuku saŋo awɛ́ŋ, á yeema woŋ.

The red pig (that one there), is the one I want.

 

A class         ácuku saŋa ayáŋ, á yeema ɲaŋ.

The red pigs (those there), are the ones I want.

 

KA class       ḿbɔɛ́ kpákaŋ akɛ́ŋ, á yeema ŋkaŋ.

The sharp knife (that one there) , is the one I want.

 

TSI class       ʦíbɔɛ́ kpákiʦi ɛʦíŋ, á yeema ʦiŋ.

The sharp knives (those there), are the ones I want.

                  

                   KE class       ńcɛ gɔlɛkɛŋ ɛkéŋ, á yeema ŋkeŋ.

                                      The good field (that one there), is the one I want.

 

                   TSA class     ʦácɛ́ gɔlɛʦa aʦáŋ, á yeema ʦaŋ.

                                      The good fields (those there), are the ones I want.

 

                   MO class      móɲiɔ bamo amóŋ, á bɛ́ntu moŋ.

                                      The big footprints (those there), are the ones I made.

 

                   LE class        (update)

 

 

MA class      mánda ʦuluma amáŋ, á yeema maŋ.

The hot water (there), is what I want.

 

 

For the O class noun ‘cuku’, modifiers acting in an adjectival role append the low toned suffix ‘o’, or  wo for modifiers with a vowel in the coda position.  The distal demonstrative for the O class is ‘awɛ́ŋ’, signifying the equivalent of ‘that’ or ‘that one there’.  At the end of the noun phrase an anaphoric binder ‘woŋ’ appears.  These class-specific binders appear at the end of a dependent clause and indicate the termination of control by the head noun, effectively ‘binding up’ the noun phrase. 

 

The noun ‘cuku’ also belongs to the plural class A.  Therefore, class A concord elements appear in the next sentence.  The remaining sentences demonstrate the forms taken by the KA, TSI and MA classes.  Each head noun controls the concord elements of the respective noun phrases. 

 


Below is a summary of the various affixes and anaphora forms for each of the nine noun classes.

 

 

Table N. 01

Number

Noun Class

Concord Prefix

Concord Suffix

Subject Pronoun

Object Pronoun

Dem Prox

Dem Dist

 Anaphoric Binder

Singular

O

ó-

-(w)o

u

awa

awɛ́ŋ

woŋ

*Singular

KA

Ń-

-(k)

ka

káŋ

aka

akɛ́ŋ

ŋkaŋ

*Singular

KE

Ń-

-(k)

ke

kéŋ

ɛke

ɛkéŋ

ŋkeŋ

Sg & Mass

LE

-

-(l)e

le

ale

aléŋ

leŋ

Mass

MA

-

-ma

ma

máŋ

ama

amáŋ

maŋ

Plural

A

á-

-(y)a

ya

ɲáá

aya

ayáŋ

ɲaŋ

Plural

TSA

tsá-

-(a)tsa

tsa

tsá

atsa

atsáŋ

tsaŋ

Plural

TSI

tsí-

-(i)tsi

tsi

tsí

ɛtsi

ɛtsíŋ

tsiŋ

Plural

MO

-

-mo

mo

móŋ

amo

amóŋ

moŋ

                   * Ń- indicates a high-toned, syllabic, homorganic nasal.

 

 

After a noun stem with a vowel in the coda position, concord suffixes in the O, KA, KE, LE and A classes appear with the leading consonant shown in parentheses.  Those in the TSA and TSI classes insert the epenthetic vowel shown in parentheses after a consonant in coda.

 

An interesting feature of Tseeyo noun classes is the phonological merger of the head noun prefixes of the ‘KA’ and ‘KE’ classes.  This has resulted in identical surface forms of the noun class prefixes – a high toned, syllabic nasal that is homorganic with the following consonant.  In the rare case of a noun beginning with a vowel, the prefixes appear as a velar nasal.  The remaining concord elements for the two classes retain their similar but distinctive forms.  More information regarding this process is given in the phonology section.

 

Semantic Indication of Noun Classes

 

Other than for the A class which remains uniquely reserved for plurals of animates and the MA class, which includes liquids and other collectives, there appears to be no clear semantic archetypes assignable to  noun classes on an individual basis.  Likewise there is no predictable correspondence between one singular noun class and another plural noun class.   Noun class pairings show a slightly higher degree of semantic identity.  However, even though a few tendencies may be observed and broad categorizations may be made on semantic grounds,  there are no hard and fast rules. Exceptions abound in all noun class pairings other than for the majority of animates.

 

At some point in the proto-languages of the distant past there may have been some semantic basis for assigning nouns to specific noun classes, but this process has long since ceased to be productive.  The majority of new inanimate nouns in Tseeyo have been assigned to the O / TSA pairing even when their semantic value would suggest affinity with another pairing group. 

 

The following chart attempts to summarize possible semantic archetypes which may be helpful in attempting to unravel the Tseeyo noun class system.   These are not intended to be exhaustive or universal groupings, but merely observed tendencies.

 

Table N. 02

Class Pairings

Sing

Mass

Plural

  Archetype

  O / TSA

ó

 

tsá

  Inanimates - Large, rounded, oval objects, misc.

O / A

ó

 

á

  Animates

 KE / MO

Ń

 

  Inanimates - Small, round shape; drops, scattered spots.

LE / TSI

 

tsí

  Inanimates - Long, thin, string-like. Some plants, rice plant.    

                      Many intangibles.

KA / TSI

Ń

 

tsí

  Inanimates - Sharp, pointed objects.

 KE / TSA

Ń

tsá

  Inanimates - Collectives, round things with two halves.

                       Large-leafed plants.

(LE) / MA

()

 

  Inanimates - Collectives, liquids and juicy plants.

KE / TSI

Ń

 

tsí

  Inanimates - Trees and tree-like plants.

 

 

N.2  Adjectival Constructions

 

Underived adjectives are a small and closed class of words in Tseeyo.  They belong to no noun classes. Tseeyo adjectives usually denote only the most common of noun attributes; dimensions, configurations, quantities, colors and a few other common characteristics such as age.  Nouns can be recruited for use as modifiers, however, and when used in this fashion do not appear with their noun class prefix.  In this work we have used a general term ‘modifier’ to refer to underived adjectives and also to nouns acting in an adjectival role.

 

As mentioned above, modifiers append noun class concord suffixes corresponding to the class of the head noun.  When multiple modifiers are used, two systems come into play; one for a small number of modifiers – usually no more than two – and another system for a larger number of modifiers. 


Below are examples of the simple system used with one or two modifiers.  Noun phrases are right branching; modifiers appear to the right of the head noun.

 

Example N.2.1

 

O class                  ó- / -o           ócuku saŋo                                The red pig

                             ócuku saŋo támbowo                The little red pig

 

A class                   á- / -a           ácuku saŋa                                The red pigs

ácuku saŋa támboya                 The little red pigs

 

 

Normally we do not encounter in Tseeyo the long strings of modifiers that can appear with nouns in other languages, notably English.  If a large number of modifiers are called for in a single utterance, a series construction is used.  In this construction, the head noun is immediately followed by a demonstrative and concord elements appear as expected.  The sentence structure, however, takes on the form of a list or recitation using the appropriate pronouns with an anaphoric binder appearing at the end the phrase.  The first two sentences in Example N.2.2 below demonstrate the simple system of incorporating modifiers. Example N.2.3 demonstrates a series construction.

 

Example N.2.2

 

ácuku saŋa kpiɲi tíripa-tíripa.                          The red pigs ran away this way and that.

ácuku saŋa támboya kpiɲi tíripa-tíripa.            The little red pigs ran away this way and that.

         

Example N.2.3

 

ácuku ayáŋ, ya saŋa, ya támboya, ya toloya ɲaŋ, ya kpiɲi tíripa-tíripa.

Those pigs, the red ones, the little ones, the spotted ones, they ran away this way and that.

 

 

When the class of a head noun is unknown, as in asking “what is that?” - “vɛyɛ awéŋ?”, a singular referent is assigned to the O class based on the membership of the stem for ‘-́’, - ‘thing’, in the O class, ‘óyɛ́’.  Plural inanimate referents are assigned to the TSA class and plural animate referents are assigned to the A class.  The answer is given with the appropriate noun class assignment.  Interrogatives do not participate in the concord system except for one form of the interrogative of quantity, ‘how much’ or ‘how many’ – ‘[prefix]-’.  

 

N.3  Genitive Constructions

 

Genitive constructions are used to mark a noun as being in relationship with another noun. The first noun in a genitive clause, or nexus, is termed the regent since it rules the clause.  The second noun which qualifies the regent is termed the genitive.  In Tseeyo the genitive appears in concord with the regent, but unlike modifiers playing an adjectival role, the genitive noun retains its own noun class prefix.  In the examples below, concord prefixes and suffixes are orthographically separated from the noun stem by a dash for ease of comparison.

 

Example N.3.1

                             ḿ-bul   ó-cuku-kaŋ           The head of the pig

                             ʦí-bul   á-cuku-ʦi              The heads of the pigs

 

Example N.3.2

ḿ-bɛŋ   ó-cuku-keŋ          The leg of the pig

                             ʦá-bɛŋ  ó-cuku-ʦa           The legs of the pig

ʦá-bɛŋ  á-cuku-ʦa           The legs of the pigs

 

From these examples we can plainly see the interplay between regent and genitive.  The word ‘bul’ – ‘head’ belongs to the KA singular class.  As mentioned before, the word ‘cuku’ – ‘pig’ belongs to the animate singular O class.  In the Example N.3.1, the word ‘bul’ is the regent and ‘cuku’ is the genitive.  The controlling noun ‘bul’ takes its KA class prefix, in this case, ‘ḿ’, and the genitive ‘cuku’ takes its O class prefix ‘ó’ and suffixes the concord suffix of the regent ‘kaŋ’.  The same process takes place in the second example using the appropriate plural class concord elements.

 

In Example N.3.2 we see that singular and plural noun classes can appear in the same nexus, as in the second line:  ʦá-bɛŋ’ – ‘the feet (plural)’, ‘ó-cuku-ʦa‘ [of] the pig (singular)’, but with plural concord.

 

Genitive chains are expressed in much the same way with each genitive noun prefixing its own proper prefix and suffixing its regent’s concord element.  We can see in the second line of Example N.3.3 below that proper names do not prefix a noun class marker in the genitive, and therefore behave identically to adjectives.

 

Example N.3.3

 

                   -lam ḿ-bul-ma ó-cuku-kaŋ     Soup of the head of the pig

                   ó-mele ó-be-o ɲiukɛ-wo              The house of the mother of Nyuke

 

N.4  Possessive Constructions

 

N.4.1  The Simple Possessive

 

Simple possession is marked in Tseeyo by marking the head noun with the appropriate personal possessive suffix, as listed in the table below.  The possessed noun appears with its own appropriate prefix. 

 

Example N.4.1.1

 

ó-lá-má / ó-cuku-má / ḿ-bɔɛ́-má          my wife  /  my pig  /  my knife

á-lá-má / á-cuku-má / ʦí-bɔɛ́-má          my wives / my pigs / my knives

 

á-lá-ɲa / ó-cuku-ɲa / ʦí-bɔɛ́-ɲa              their wives / their pig / their knives

á-lá-ŋo / á-cuku-ŋo / ʦí-bɔɛ́-ŋo              your(sg) wives / your(sg) pigs / your(sg) knives

 

 

Table N.03

 

          Personal Possessive Suffixes

         

1SG

1PL

2SG

2PL

3SG

3PL

 

-

-maŋ

-ŋó

-

-

-ɲa

 

 

When using a proper name, two methods of indicating possession may be used.  The first is formally identical to the adjectival construction and is called the adjectival possessive, the second is similar to simple possession and is referred to as the formal possessive.

 

N.4.2  The Adjectival Possessive

 

In this method of expressing possession, the proper name behaves very much in the same way as a modifier in the adjectival role.

 

Example N.4.2.1

 

ó- ɲiukɛ-wo / ó-cuku ɲiukɛ-wo / ḿ-bɔɛ́ ɲiukɛ-kaŋ    

Nyuke’s wife / Nyuke’s pig / Nyuke’s knife

 

When the item or items are possessed by more than two people, the conjunctive ‘’ – ‘and’ is inserted between the two names with the appropriate concord suffix appended to the second name.

 

 

Example N.4.2.2

 

á- ɲiukɛ fágba-ya / ó-cuku ɲiukɛ fágba-wo / ʦí-bɔɛ́ ɲiukɛ fágba-ʦi

Nyuke and Fagba’s wives / Nyuke and Fagba’s pig (sing.) / Nyuke and Fagba’s knives

 

When the items possessed are different but are members of the same noun classes, the items are listed with the appropriate singular or plural noun class prefixes attached, and the possessor follows with the plural concord element suffixed.

 

 

Example N.4.2.3

 

ó- ó-támbɔ́ ɲiukɛ-ya / ó-cuku á-sɔsɔ ɲiukɛ-ya

Nyuke’s wife and sons / Nyuke’s pig and chickens

 

When the items in possession are of mixed noun classes, other than merely singular and plural, the formal possessive construction is used.

 

N.4.3  The Formal Possessive

 

Formal possession closely resembles simple possession in that personal possessive suffixes are used, but in the formal possessive the proper name follows the suffixed noun.

 

Example N.4.3.1

 

ó-lá-wó ɲiukɛ / ó-cuku-wó ɲiukɛ / ḿ-bɔɛ́-wó ɲiukɛ     

Nyuke’s wife / Nyuke’s pig / Nyuke’s knife

 

When more than one thing is possessed and they are of differing noun classes the following construction is used.

 

Example N.4.3.2

 

ó-mele-wó ń-cɛ-wó ɲiuke                

Nyuke’s house and farm

 

ʦá-mele-ɲa ń-cɛ-ɲa ɲiuke ó-ba ɲiuke-o 

(houses-their and farm-their Nyuke and the father of Nyuke)

Nyuke and Nyuke’s father’s houses and farms

 

The second example above demonstrates that different methods of indicating possession can be used in the same utterance.  The houses and farms show possession by the formal possessive and the father shows possession by Nyuke using the adjectival possessive.

                  

N.5  Numerals

 

The Tseeyo numeration system is interesting in that some numbers are adjectives and others are nouns.  The Table N.04 demonstrates in the counting form that the numbers six through nine are compounds of five + (one to four), but there has been some phonological wearing down of the full forms.  Above ten, the compounded nature of the numeration is more clearly visible.

 

 

Table N.04

 

1-5

mbɛ́l

ndɛ́ŋ

ndára

ɲiála

nɛ́nu

6-10

nɛmbɛ́

nɛndɛ́ŋ

nɛndáá

nɛliá

ótsú

 

 

 

 

Numerals 1 – 9 are underived adjectives and take noun class agreement suffixes as would any other member of a noun phrase.  The process of phonological assimilation has produced slightly different forms than might be expected.  These adjectival numerals cannot play the role of the nucleus in a nonverbal sentence.  A special form is used for counting.

 

 

Table N.05 Tseeyo Numerals

 

 

Counting

Singular Noun Classes

 

 

Form

o

ka

ke

le

 

1

mbɛ́l

mbɛ́lo

mbɛ́laŋ

mbɛ́leŋ

mbɛ́le

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Counting

Mass Noun Classes

Plural Noun Classes

 

Form

le

ma

a (ya)

tsa

tsi (iʦi)

mo

1

mbɛ́l

mbɛ́le

mbɛ́ma

mbɛ́la

mbɛ́ʦa

mbéʦi

mbɛ́mo

2

ndɛ́ŋ

ndɛ́ŋe

ndɛ́ma

ndéɲa

ndɛ́ʦa

ndíʦi

ndɛ́mo

3

ndára

ndáále

ndááma

ndááya

ndáátsa

ndáɛ́ʦi

ndáámo

4

ɲiála

ɲiále

ɲiáma

ɲiála

ɲiáʦa

ɲiɛ́ʦi

ɲiámo

5

nɛ́nu

nɛ́ndɛ

nɛ́ma

nɛ́na

nɛ́nuʦa

nɛ́nuʦi

nɛ́mo

6

nɛmbɛ́

nɛmbɛ́le

nɛmbɛ́ma

nɛmbɛ́la

nɛmbɛ́ʦa

nɛmbíʦi

nɛmbɛ́mo

7

nɛndɛ́ŋ

nɛndɛ́ŋe

nɛndɛ́ma

nɛndéɲa

nɛndɛ́ʦa

nɛndíʦi

nɛndɛ́mo

8

nɛndáá

nɛndáále

nɛndááma

nɛndááya

nɛndááʦa

nɛndáɛ́ʦi

nɛndáámo

9

nɛliá

nɛliále

nɛliáma

nɛliáya

nɛliáʦa

nɛliɛ́ʦi

nɛliámo

10

ótsú

ótsú

ótsú

ótsú

ótsú

ótsú

ótsú

 

 

N.5.1  Individuation

 

Use of ‘mbɛ́l’ – ‘one’ with mass or plural noun class concord indicates individuation, ‘one of those’, and requires the preceding individuation particle ‘guɛ’.  This particle may also be used without ‘one’.

 

Example N.5.1.1

 

guɛ mbɛ́la     “one of those” (A class, animate)

guɛya            “one of those” (A class, animate)

 

guɛ mbɛ́ʦa   “one of those” (TSA class, inanimate)

guɛʦa           “one of those” (TSA class, inanimate)

 

The LE class covers many intangibles, so that when numbers are used with these concepts the idea is that of ‘a number of different instances of X’.  The LE class prefix is also sometimes used with members of the MA class that can easily be considered as singular.  The word ‘sia’ – ‘orange’, normally appears as a member of the MA class, ‘másia’.  However, it is not unheard of for one orange fruit referred to as ‘lésia’, although referring to an individual orange as ‘másia’ is the norm.

 

Use of numbers with mass noun classes indicates a slightly different form of individuation than ‘guɛ’. For example, the Tseeyo word for water mánde’, incorporates the collective MA prefix.  A hypothetical form ‘lénde’ when posed to Tseeyo speakers reportedly would mean ‘one water’ – meaning the same as ‘a drop of water’.  A similar form ‘mámo’ – ‘cooked-rice’ when used with a singular noun class ‘lémo’ reportedly would mean ‘one cooked-rice’ – the same as ‘one grain of cooked-rice.’

 

N.5.2  Use As Modifiers

 

As stated above, the numbers ten and above behave as nouns while those below ten are true adjectives.  This is illustrated below.

 

Example N.5.2.1

 

Adjectives:                                 ʦí-bɔɛ́ nɛmbíʦi / á-cuku ɲiála / ḿ-pɔlɔ́ mbɛ́leŋ

six knives / four pigs / a grain of uncooked rice

 

Nouns:                                     ʦí-bɔɛ́ ó-ʦú-ʦi / á-cuku ḿ-bí-ya / mó-pɔlɔ́ mó-bí-mo ndɛ́mo

(Genitive Construction)               knives of ten’ /  ‘pigs of twenty’  / ‘grains of uncooked rice of forty’

(Note: forty is two twenties)

 

 

The following table illustrates the principles upon which higher Tseeyo numbers are based.  Tseeyo numerals 1 – 9 are true adjectives in the sense that they do not belong to any noun classes.  Therefore, when they are added to a numerical phrase, they have no noun class prefix. 

 

 

In the example of  ‘30’ below note that the conjunction ‘’ is added between numerals to indicate an addition process.  Thus we see that to express the concept of ‘thirty’ in Tseeyo, one must use the construction ‘ḿbí óʦú’ – ‘twenty and ten’, also translatable as ‘the twenty and the ten.’

 

Other higher numbers are expressed by a process of multiplication.  In the example of ‘40’ below, we see that to express the concept of ‘forty’ in Tseeyo, one must use the adjectival construction ‘móbí ndɛ́mo’ – ‘two twenties’ or ‘twenty times two’.

 

These processes are combined to express the concept of ‘fifty’ as ‘móbí ndɛ́mo óʦú’ – ‘two twenties and ten’ where ‘ndɛ́mo’ – ‘two’ appears in a form modifying ‘móbí’ – ‘twenties’ and ‘óʦú’ – ‘ten’ is simply added on.

 

Table N.06

#

Surface

Underlying

Concept

Paraphrase

10

óʦú

ó+tsú

10

ten

20

ḿbí

Ń+bí

20

twenty

30

ḿbí óʦú

Ń+bí ná ótsú

20 + 10

twenty and ten

40

móbí ndɛ́mo

mó+bí  ndɛ́ŋ+mo

20 x 2

two twenties

50

móbí ndɛ́mo ná óʦú

mó+bí  ndɛ́ŋ+mo ná ó+tsú

20 x 2 + 10

two twenties and ten

60

móbí ndáámo

mó+bí  ndára+mo

20 x 3

three twenties

70

móbí ndáámo óʦú

mó+bí  ndára+mo ná ó+tsú

20 x 3 + 10

three twenties and ten

80

móbí ɲiámo

mó+bí  ɲiála+mo

20 x 4

four twenties

90

móbí ɲiámo óʦú

mó+bí  ɲiála+mo ná ó+tsú

20 x 4 + 10

four twenties and ten

 

 

 

 

 

100

ówú

ó+wú

100

(one)hundred

200

ʦáwú ndɛ́ʦa

ʦá+wú  ndɛ́ŋ+ʦa

100 x 2

two (one)hundreds

 

 

 

 

 

1000

léolu

lé+wulu

1000

(one)thousand

2000

ʦíwulu ndíʦi

ʦí+wulu ndɛ́ŋ+(i)ʦi

1000 x 2

two (one)thousands

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2173

ʦíwulu ndíʦi ówu móbí ndámo óʦú (ndára)

 

 

two thousands and (one)hundred and three twenties and ten and three

 

 

 

 

 

 

80

móbí ɲiámo

PL.twenty four.NC (with concord)

 

24

ḿbí ɲiála

SG.twenty and four (no concord w/ )

 

 

 

 

 

 

'Four' would be in concord if modifying a noun since it is an adjective.

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

knives

ʦíbɔɛ́ ḿbí ɲiáʦi

 

 

 

 

PL.knife SG.twenty and four.NC(knife)

 

 

 

 

 

 

'Twenty' would behave as in a genitive clause since it is a noun.

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

knives

ʦíbɔɛ́ ḿbíʦí

 

 

 

 

PL.knife SG.twenty.NC

 

 

 

 

"knives of twenty"

 

 

 

 

In Development –

Ř      Nominalization

Ř      Structure of a subject / object noun.

Ř      How adjectives, genitives and possessives might combine.

Ř      Proper names

Ř      Personal pronouns

Ř      Noun class pronouns

Ř      Indefinite quantity words (after numbers)

 


Nominalization

(Still in development 4/30/08)

 

The Nominalizing Suffix

 

The primary method of nominalizing verbs and adjectives in Tseeyo is by the use of a nominalizing suffix which can take several surface forms depending on the phonological context.  In some ways this suffix resembles a verbal extension, but differs in that it is not inflected.  This method of nominalization may only be used with verbs in their unextended, basic form.  Extended verbs use the noun class nominalization method.

 

verb-i

 

 

 

verb-ɛ

 

 

 

verb-e

 

 

 

kaba

v. be hard

kabaɔ́

n. being hard, hardness

kuɔ

v. fear

kuuɔ́

n. fearing, the fear of

co

v. sing

coó

n. singing, the singing

diu

v. kill

diwɔ́

n. killing

gbaal

expel

gbaandɔ́

n. expulsion